为了解决这个经济差距,斯坦福大学的研究人员开发出一种新的指标,用于测量的性质对经济活动的贡献值。vwin手机版他们的研究,publishedinProceedings of the National Academy of Sciences,详细介绍了如何的做法,被称为生态系统的总产品(GEP)在中国正在顺利实施。

“We’re basically flying blind when it comes to knowing where and how much nature to protect,” said the study’s senior author格雷琴日报, a professor of environmental science at Stanford’s School of Humanities and Sciences.

“GEP跟踪对社会保障它们性质的重要贡献,运筹学与投资,并帮助评估领导者和政策的表现,补充说:”每天,谁也自然资本项目,跨学科的合作,帮助政府和组织的课程主任integrate the values of nature’s contributions into economic and development plans.

The researchers used投资, the Natural Capital Project’s open-source mapping and modeling software, to calculate the flow of benefits that nature provides to people and inform the GEP equation. GEP is calculated in parallel ways to GDP, accounting for and aggregating all of nature’s contributions to people in a single, monetary metric. These contributions provide a new lens with which to assess income and performance.

“在过去的50年里,全球国内生产总值的370%上升,”合着者斯蒂芬Polasky,在美国明尼苏达大学生态与环境经济学教授说。“除了全球经济的繁荣,我们所看到的重要自然资本,从根本上巩固人类福祉的恶化。”

中国的专科emy of Sciences has pioneered the concept of GEP and compiled a wealth of environmental data to do the calculations. Led by Zhiyun Ouyang, director of the academy’s Research Center for Eco-Environmental Sciences and lead author on the study, the research team used Qinghai province in China as a testing ground for the new measure. Qinghai province is known as the “water tower of Asia” because it sits at the source of the Mekong, Yangtze and Yellow rivers, which provide water to much of China and other Southeast Asian countries.

“Qinghai is rich in natural capital, but its GDP alone does not reflect that value,” Ouyang said. “Using this new metric, we were able to place a value on important ecosystem services, especially water supply, that Qinghai currently exports to other provinces but receives no credit for in the GDP calculation.”

The people downstream who benefit from Qinghai’s water supply tend to live in provinces wealthier in GDP and, in urban areas, often poorer in GEP. Using GEP, leaders in China are informing “eco-compensation” programs that enable downstream water users to pay for the protection of the water source upstream. These types of programs can help alleviate poverty while keeping critical ecosystem benefits flowing.

研究人员也在思考新措施如何能联系到的政策。“GEP本身只是一个指标,一个数字。但是,用于通知和推动政策时,它可以为全球范围内改变我们的理解方式和价值性的强大的新工具,”玛丽Ruckelshaus,自然资本项目的董事总经理。“正在举行报告GEP可以激励各国政府作出这样的保护上,我们赖以生存的自然资源的决定负责。”

Like the payment for the water eco-compensation program in China, other countries and governments have been implementing schemes to allow payment for the provision and protection of ecosystem services for decades. But policy development can be slow and burdensome, especially without a standardized measurement or approach. GEP will enable governments to more easily compare options and weigh tradeoffs between different conservation decisions.

The ultimate goal is to see the successes of its application in China applied globally so that economies everywhere track and secure the values of nature to society. The researchers are working with the United Nations Statistics Division to develop ways to scale and standardize GEP as a global reporting metric.

“我们看到GEP在所有经济报道GDP旁边一个潜在的未来,”日报说。“使用GEP的产生具体结果已经 - 创造就业机会和恢复重要的生态系统。保护自然资本是在未来,我们都可以茁壮成长的心脏“。

格雷琴日报is also Bing Professor of Environmental Science in the StanfordSchool of Humanities and Sciences而在资深研究员Stanford Woods Institute for the Environment. Co-author Changsu Song was a visiting scholar at the Stanford Natural Capital Project from the Chinese Academy of Sciences.

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