圣母院:中世纪的石匠建造拱形天花板以防火。

中世纪的石匠建造了高耸的拱形天花板,如巴黎圣母院的天花板,法国使用今天还不完全理解的技术。

The challenge of restoring Notre Dame after the fire in April presents an opportunity to unravel the techniques of the time,大卫温德兰教授说,德国勃兰登堡科技大学建筑史主席科特布斯·森弗滕堡,最近推断出有多复杂,late Gothic vaults were constructed.

What is special about vaulted ceilings?

‘A vault is a self-supporting ceiling built of masonry which is stable due to its form – which is curved or double curved.拱形天花板是一个美丽的建筑特征,但它的主要作用是,当屋顶被烧毁时,教堂内部受到保护。

哥特式大教堂拱顶似乎是一项非凡的成就。

‘If a vault has the wrong shape,你可以随心所欲地建造它,但它会倒塌。我们的印象是他们(中世纪的石匠)非常清楚他们在做什么。我常常张开嘴站在那里想:“天哪,他们很好。“”

You investigated the design principles of late Gothic vaults through a project called雷氏拱顶设计.拱顶最初是如何建造的?

“我们可以假设他们在猜测,但那是非常危险的。在历史资料中,我们确实发现了一些崩塌,但很少。Somehow they did it right and what is interesting for us historically is to understand what their idea of mechanics was.

‘These structures are extremely complex in their shape because they need this curvature to be stable.我们正在研究的问题是:建筑大师怎么能准确地告诉石匠他们必须做什么?他们必须(传送必要的几何信息)使每一个石匠都能准确地按照项目生产这件作品,and to make them fit together.

另一个问题是,他们认为拱顶是如何机械地工作的?今天,我们有了工具来理解在给定的载荷设置下是什么使形状稳定。我们不知道他们是如何理解金库何时是稳定的。”

斯特拉斯堡大教堂修复车间的工匠和技术人员模仿了中世纪在圣路易斯教堂拱顶制作的过程。Anne's Church in Annaberg,德国。Image credit - María José Ventas
斯特拉斯堡大教堂修复车间的工匠和技术人员模仿了中世纪在圣路易斯教堂拱顶制作的过程。Anne's Church in Annaberg,德国。Image credit – María José Ventas

How did you work out the methods behind the complex late Gothic vault at St Anne's Church in Annaberg-Buchholz,德国?

“斯特拉斯堡大教堂修复工作坊的科学家和真正优秀的工匠和技术人员需要复制中世纪的过程。

“拱顶的设计从曲线开始。你可以画出来,如果它们是空间曲线,你可以把它们发展vwin手机版成(二维)平面。

所以关键是在二维平面上表示一组三维曲线?

‘The process is to understand how I can create a system which I can draw in the plane.And we were able to do that.我们在拱顶上做了很多三维测量。We analysed these data on a computer and we reconstructed the geometry from there.这就是(结构)设计的假设。Then we had to work out how that was done.

‘We tried to understand what design procedures for geometry they used.而且,根据我们对时间应用几何的了解,we figured out what could have been the way,but we had to try it out.'

‘A vaulted ceiling is a beautiful architectural feature,but its main role is that the inside of the church is protected when the roof burns down.' Prof.David WendlandUniversity of Technology Cottbus-Senftenberg,德国

你是怎么做到的?

“我们必须全面绘制(整个)拱顶,在同一个尺寸(它)应该被建造。We did that on a plaster surface (of 180m)在那里你可以用针画画。

'从这张图,你必须制作模板(可以用来追踪石头切割指令的二维切口),你必须了解这些模板是如何工作的,才能制作出弯曲的石头。So we made it all the way from what we would call today the executing drawing to the production of the stone member.

‘We now understand how the geometric design and the instructions for carving were made in the period of late Middle Ages and Early Modern (from around 1250 to late 16th世纪)。

‘Until now,only the modern procedures – from 19th百年前——是众所周知的。

Why is it so important for restoration to understand how medieval vaulting was built?

‘The process you use for designing and planning also determines the shape.所以,如果你使用一个现代的过程,你会得到一个不同的——也许是轻微的,but clearly visible – from the shape of the original.'

教授温德兰认为,到2024年奥运会之前,巴黎圣母院的重建是有可能的,而且是最值得尊敬的。形象学分-教授David Wendland
教授温德兰认为,到2024年奥运会之前,巴黎圣母院的重建是有可能的,而且是最值得尊敬的。Image credit – Prof.David Wendland

What damage did Notre Dame's vaulting sustain?

尖顶和它正下方的拱顶(建于)19thcentury.在火灾中,尖顶大致朝着主立面的方向下落,最大的破坏发生在中堂拱顶(12th世纪)。12分之一thcentury webbing (infill between the ribs),also in the transversal area,它已经倒塌了。”

this earlier vaulting in Notre Dame simpler than the 19thcentury structures?

“在我们研究的拱顶(中欧晚期哥特式拱顶)中,肋骨更复杂,因为它们…在不同的层面上有交叉点。在圣母院,它们是简单的普通拱门。

‘But in Notre Dame the webbings are of cut stone and in the period we studied they are made of bricks.

‘You can chop a piece away to make a brick fit in place.But with stones you cannot just stand on the scaffolding and chop them to the right size – you have to prepare them beforehand.There is no book where you can read (how they did) that.'

圣母院的修复工作该怎么做?

“从保护的角度来看,你应该复制19th世纪金库(根据19th世纪方法)。But we should definitely reconstruct the medieval vaults as they were in the Middle Ages and we still have to understand how this was done.

‘I think we should use this very sad moment to learn how this was done,to restore it in a way that also makes us understand very well what is there and to have this knowledge again in our culture.'

According to Prof.Wendland the damaged vaults of Paris' Notre Dame should be restored according to 19th century methods.Image credit - Thesupermat/ Wikimedia Commons is licensed under CC BY-SA 3.0
According to Prof.Wendland the damaged vaults of Paris' Notre Dame should be restored according to 19th century methods.图像信用-supermat/wikimedia commons根据CC by-SA 3.0获得许可

这不会花太长时间吗?法国总统伊曼纽尔·麦隆希望在2024年奥运会期间能够及时恢复。

“我们(历史学家和修复专家)都有点担心现在会有一场热潮,但是…我认为如果我们组织的话这是可行的,concentrate and mobilise a lot of resources.

现在有了科学家(with already more than 170 members of many different areas) that tries to bring together all the know-how necessary for reconstructing Notre Dame in the most authentic and most respectful way.这是绝对可行的。”

本次访谈经过编辑,内容详尽明了。

本文中的研究由欧盟欧洲研究理事会资助。If you liked this article,请考虑在社交媒体上分享。

Originally published by视界

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